Seen In: Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country (1991)
The idea of imprisoning workers to carry out a mining operation, or simply pacing them on an inhospitable world is nothing new to science fiction (the 'Slam' Facility from The Chronicles of Riddick wins the 'coolest name' prize), but when it showed up in not only Star Trek VI, but the 2009 reboot, another tragic layer was added.
Rura Penthe - the prison asteroid/dilithium mine run by Klingons - isn't that different from the Siberian prison from Tolstoy's "War and Peace" it's named after, but that's what makes it so horrifying. This is a universe where teleportation, the Holodeck, and the Borg are all reality, but there are still criminals freezing or working themselves to death digging - with pickaxes - in a mine. The simple truth is that there would have to be faster ways of mining the resource, but the Klingons just keep the mine running to torture the prisoners.