What Does This Mean for Daisy?
Exposure to the Centipede Serum certainly seems to have boosted Daisy's own super-powers. She's never been able to blast someone into space before, after all! Doing that requires both an ability to generate vibrational waves of tremendous force, and the force of will to focus all that energy into lateral blasts. It's an incredible feat, but the Centipede-boosted Daisy was able to pull it off (although she did look absolutely exhausted afterwards).
It's important to note that Daisy's vibrational powers actually put a significant strain upon her body. That's why she initially wore those gauntlets; they shielded her body from the damaging effects of her vibrations, which threatened to splinter her bones apart. As Daisy gradually gained control of her powers, Fitz upgraded the gauntlets, and they became a tool to help Quake focus her vibrational waves. But the Centipede Serum has clearly boosted Daisy's powers further, meaning Daisy is working with power on a scale she's never managed before. It's possible those gauntlets aren't giving her enough protection anymore, so there's a real risk to her body if S.H.I.E.L.D. doesn't upgrade those gauntlets again. The mission to find Fitz is a vital one for Daisy.
At the same time, though, we must consider whether the Centipede Serum has also given Daisy an entirely new range of super-powers. There's likely an Extremis component in the serum, meaning Daisy's strength and resistance to injury will be enhanced. Certainly, Jiaying's DNA was crafted into the serum, giving Quake an element of her mother's healing powers. There may be a cost to these new powers, though; Daisy will need to eat more food than before, and she'll need periods of rest after using those powers.
The combination of Centipede-granted skills and S.H.I.E.L.D. training will make Daisy Johnson a formidable warrior. She's already a skilled hand-to-hand combatant, trained by Melinda May herself, and has been able to hold her own against Kree soldiers. Now imagine those skills boosted by super-strength and enhanced speed.
How Long Will The Serum's Effects Last?
In an interview with Entertainment Weekly, Jed Whedon played coy as to whether the Centipede Serum will have a permanent effect on Quake. "Well, she’s definitely juiced up in some way," he noted, "and how much that carries, we’ll see." The reality is that the showrunners probably haven't had the chance to think much about this; they deliberately wrote "The End" as a potential close to the entire series. Until last week, Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. was in "the bubble," with ABC only deciding the show's fate last week and renewing S.H.I.E.L.D. for an abbreviated sixth season.
Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. has tended to jump forwards in time every season in order to ensure each season is set at roughly the time it airs. With S.H.I.E.L.D. Season 6 releasing in summer 2019, that means quite a bit of time will probably have passed since Daisy dosed up on the Centipede Serum. That gives the showrunners a lot of room to maneuver; they can choose to have Daisy retain these enhanced powers, or they can ditch them without comment. Either way would work absolutely fine from a narrative point of view.
At the same time, it's clear there's real dramatic potential to permanently boosting Daisy's abilities. These new powers would force Daisy to relearn her limitations. A mission to space won't provide her with many opportunities to experiment with her powers; a single mistake could breach the Zephyr's hull, causing explosive decompression. That means Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. Season 6 would see a Daisy who's more powerful than ever before, but who's also dangerously unstable, and whose greatest feats come at a great risk to her own health.
Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. Season 6 will air in Summer 2016.